What does FEMA Federal Cost Share cover and does my state have to agree to pay the cost share?
IHP Other Needs Assistance ONA and Transitional Sheltering Assistance TSA are subject to a cost share between FEMA and the state, territorial, or tribal STT government.

By Murray Wennerlund published 9-29-2022 updated 9-29-2022

B. Federal Cost Share

The assistance FEMA provides through its PA program and some types of IA are subject to a cost share.

For IA, FEMA provides 100% of

  • IHP Housing Assistance,
  • Disaster Case Management (DCM),
  • Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA),
  • Disaster Legal Services (DLS), and
  • Crisis Counseling and Training Program (CCP)

IHP Other Needs Assistance (ONA) and Transitional Sheltering Assistance (TSA) are subject to a cost share between FEMA and the state, territorial, or tribal (STT) government.

FEMA covers 75% of eligible ONA and TSA costs, and the STT government is responsible for the remaining 25%. ONA cost share is fixed by statute. The TSA cost share adjustment may be approved by the President on an individual disaster basis.

The ONA provision of the IHP, authorized by Section 408(e) of the Stafford Act,147 provides financial assistance for disaster-related necessary expenses and serious needs that are not covered by insurance or provided by any other source. Unlike Housing Assistance, ONA is subject to a cost share between FEMA and the STT government.

FEMA, in coordination with the STT government pre-determines ONA-eligible items and amounts to be awarded.

A. ONA Options and Cost Shares

FEMA collaborates with the SBA in determining applicant eligibility for some types of ONA. The Small Business Act authorizes the SBA to provide low-interest disaster loans to applicants who have sustained damage in a disaster. An applicant must meet a minimum income test, which the SBA establishes, to be considered for a loan. FEMA refers the applicant's information to SBA if the applicant's income meets SBA minimum guidelines. FEMA and SBA coordinate to ensure that ONA and SBA disaster loans do not cause a duplication of benefits for the same type of assistance.

The SBA Disaster Loan application process only applies to SBA-Dependent ONA. FEMA does not require the applicant to apply for an SBA loan before being considered for Non-SBA-Dependent ONA or Housing Assistance.

Each type of ONA has specific conditions of eligibility applicants must satisfy prior to being considered for assistance. These conditions are described in the appropriate sections of this chapter.

Non-SBA Dependent ONA
FEMA provides assistance for these items without regard to whether an applicant may obtain an SBA loan.

  • Funeral Assistance
  • Medical and Dental Assistance
  • Child Care Assistance
  • Assistance for Miscellaneous Items
  • Moving and Storage Assistance
  • Critical Needs Assistance
  • Clean and Removal Assistance

SBA-Dependent ONA
The applicant must first apply to the SBA for a loan for these expenses or serious needs

  • Personal Property Assistance
  • Transportation Assistance
  • Group Flood Insurance Policy

1. Amount of Assistance
Assistance for an eligible applicant will not exceed the financial ONA maximum award pursuant to Section 408(h) of the Stafford Act. However, Personal Property Assistance for specific disaster-damaged accessibility items is not limited by a financial maximum award. The following accessibility items are eligible under Personal Property Assistance:

  • Computer, if used as the sole means of communication for a household member
  • Raised toilet seat
  • Washer (front-loading), if a member of the household uses a wheelchair or has a similar mobility limitation
  • Refrigerator (side-by-side), if a member of the household uses a wheelchair or has a similar mobility limitation
  • Bed (hospital type)
  • Walker
  • Wheelchair
  • Shower Chair
  • Smoke Alarm (specialty), if a member of the household is sight or hearing-impaired
  • TTY/ TDY Telephone

For some specific categories of ONA, the affected STT government will establish the maximum amount of financial assistance that may be awarded as part of their yearly submission of FEMA Form FF-104-FY-21-114, ONA Administrative Option Selection.


Individual Assistance Program and Policy Guide (IAPPG) Version 1.1 FP 104-009-03| May 2021